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Naneghat | Nane ghat | नाणेघाट प्राचीन व्यापारी मार्ग

by - January 06, 2021

 Naneghat, also referred to as Nanaghat or Nana Ghat (IAST: Nānāghaṭ), is a mountain pass in the Western Ghats range between the Konkan coast and the ancient town of Junnar in the Deccan plateau. The pass is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of Pune and about 165 kilometres (103 mi) east from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It was a part of an ancient trading route, and is famous for a major cave with Middle Indic inscriptions in Brahmi script. These inscriptions have been dated between the 2nd and the 1st century BCE, and attributed to the Satavahana dynasty era. The inscriptions are notable for linking the Vedic and Vaishnavism deities, mentioning some Vedic srauta rituals and of names that provide historical information about the ancient Satavahanas. The inscriptions present the world's oldest numeration symbols for "2, 4, 6, 7, and 9" that resemble modern era numerals, more closely those found in modern Nagari and Hindu-Arabic script.

Nanaghat pass stretches over the Western Ghats, through an ancient stone laid hiking trail to the Nanaghat plateau. The pass was the fastest key passage that linked the Indian west coast seaports of Sopara, Kalyan and Thana with economic centers and human settlements in Nasik, Paithan, Ter and others, according to Archaeological Survey of India.[9] Near the top is large, ancient manmade cave. On the cave's back wall are a series of inscriptions, some long and others short. The high point and cave is reachable by road via Highways 60 or 61. The cave archaeological site is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of Pune and about 165 kilometres (103 mi) east from Mumbai. The Naneghat Cave is near other important ancient sites. It is, for example, about 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the Lenyadri Group of Theravada Buddhist Caves and some 200 mounds that have been excavated near Junnar, mostly from the 3rd-century BCE and 3rd-century CE period.

During the reign of the Satavahana (c. 200 BCE – 190 CE), the Naneghat pass was one of the trade routes. It connected the Konkan coast communities with Deccan high plateau through Junnar. Literally, the name nane means "coin" and ghat means "pass". The name is given because this path was used as a tollbooth to collect toll from traders crossing the hills. According to Charles Allen, there is a carved stone that from distance looks like a stupa, but is actually a two-piece carved stone container by the roadside to collect tolls.


The scholarship on the Naneghat Cave inscription began after William Sykes found them while hiking during the summer of 1828. Neither an archaeologist nor epigraphist, his training was as a statistician and he presumed that it was a Buddhist cave temple. He visited the site several times and made eye-copy (hand drawings) of the script panel he saw on the left and the right side of the wall. He then read a paper to the Bombay Literary Society in 1833 under the title, Inscriptions of the Boodh caves near Joonur, later co-published with John Malcolm in 1837. Sykes believed that the cave's "Boodh" (Buddhist) inscription showed signs of damage both from the weather elements as well as someone crudely incising to desecrate it. He also thought that the inscription was not created by a skilled artisan, but someone who was in a hurry or not careful. Sykes also noted that he saw stone seats carved along the walls all around the cave, likely because the cave was meant as a rest stop or shelter for those traveling across the Western Ghats through the Naneghat pass.


नाणेघाट  - व्यापारासाठी सोयीचे व्हावे यासाठीच देश व कोकणाला जोडत हा घाट खोदण्यात आला.  नाणेघाट हा भारताच्या महाराष्ट्र राज्यातील एक प्राचीन व्यापारी घाट मार्ग आहे. हा मार्ग पुर्वीचे जीर्णनगर(जुन्नर) व कोकणातील भाग यांना जोडतो. हा घाटमार्ग सातवाहन कालीन आहे.. इसवी सन पूर्व पहिल्या शतकात हे खोदकाम झाले. 

इतिहास

मौर्य राजा नंतर सत्तेत आलेल्या सातवाहन राजांनी हा घाट खोदला. या घाटात सातवाहनांनी एक लेणे तयार करत त्यामध्ये त्यांच्या कुलाची गाथाही कोरून ठेवलेली आढळते. येथे असलेल्या लेखात सातवाहन सम्राज्ञी नागणिके विषयी माहिती मिळते. या लेखांमध्ये महाराष्ट्राच्या आद्य राज्यकुल, त्यांचा पराक्रम, दानधर्माबद्दल माहिती आहे. इसवी सन पूर्व पहिल्या शतकात भारताच्या मोठया भूप्रदेशावर राज्य करणारा सातवाहन हे पहिले राजे. हा राजवंश सुमारेचार शतके सलगतेने राज्य करत होता.. प्रतिष्ठान (पैठण), जीर्णनगर (जुन्नर), तगर (तेर), नेवासे, नाशिक अशी भरभराटीला आलेली शहरे या राजवटीत उदयास आली. अशा या सातवाहनांच्या राज्यात प्रवेश करण्यासाठी ‘नाणेघाट’ हा प्रमुख मार्ग होता. 

येथील एका लेखात सातवाहनांच्या पराक्रमाशिवाय त्यांनी इथे केलेले यज्ञ, दानधर्माचे उल्लेख आहेत. सातवाहन राजांनी दोनदा अश्वमेध यज्ञ केला असे दिसून येते. याशिवाय वाजपेय यज्ञ, राजसूय यज्ञ असे तब्बल २२ यज्ञ इथे पार पडल्याची माहिती हे लेख देतात. हजारो गाई, शेकडो हत्ती, घोडे, खेडी, धान्य, वस्त्र-अलंकार आणि तत्कालीन सातवाहनांची कार्षांपण या नाण्यांचा मोठा दानधर्म केल्याचाही यात उल्लेख येतो.


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